India Year Book 2018
Botanical Survey of India:
- Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the apex research organization under Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change for carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources of the country.
- It was established in 1890.
- The basic objective of BSI is to explore the plant resources of the country and to identify the plants species with economic virtues.
- Sir George King, the then Superintendent of the ‘Royal Botanic Garden’ Calcutta was appointed as first ex-officio Honorary Director of the BSI.
Zoological Survey of India:
- Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), was established in the year 1916.
- Headquarters of ZSI is located at Kolkata.
Centre for Biodiversity Policy and Law:
- The Government of India in collaboration with the Norwegian Government has established a “Centre for Biodiversity Policy and Law (CEBPOL)” in the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Chennai.
- The main of CEBPOL is to develop professional expertise in biodiversity policies and laws and develop capacity building.
India Biosphere Reserves in the world Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO:
- There are 18 designated Biosphere Reserves (BRs) in India.
- Out of 18 Biosphere Reserves, 10 Biosphere Reserves have been included in the world Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO.
International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO):
The International Tropical Timber Agreement (ITTA) was established in 1983 by the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO).
- Headquarters of ITTA is located in Yokohama, Japan.
- It provides a framework of tropical timber producer and consumer countries to discuss, exchanges information and develop policies on issues relating to international trade, utilization of, tropical timber and the sustainable management of its resources base.
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
- The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is one of the key agreements adopted during the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
- India enacted the Biological Diversity (BD) Act in 2002 to give effect to the provision of this Convention.
- The Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing (ABS) adopted under the aegis of CBD in 2010, is aimed at fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources.
- The Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
- It was adopted on 29 January 2000 and entered into force on 11 September 2003.
- The Basel Convention is related to the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal.
- The convention was adopted in 1989 in Basel, Switzerland.
- The Montreal Protocol has been recognized as the most successful international environmental treaty in history.
- It has been universally ratified and all the 197 UN member countries of the world are the parties to the Vienna Convention and its Montreal Protocol.
- The protocol is related to phase-out of production and consumption of several major ODSs such as CFCs, CTC and halons globally from 2010.
The Rotterdam Convention on the prior informed consent procedure for certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade came into force in 2004.
- The Stockholm Convention is related to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) .
- It is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from POPs.
The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and its Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer are the international treaties specific for the protection of the Stratospheric Ozone (Ozone layer).
Protected areas in India:
The protected area network of the country comprises 733 protected areas (103 national parks, 537 wildlife sanctuaries, 67 conservation reserves and 26 community reserves).
Categories of industries classified by CPCB:
- CPCB has finalized the criteria for classifying industries into Red, Orange, Green and White category.
- The classification is based on pollution potential will help bring uniformity for its adoption by SPCBs.
- Project Tiger is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme which was launched in 1973.
- The main objective of Project Tiger to ensure maintenance of a viable population of tigers in India for scientific, economic, aesthetic, cultural and ecological values, and to preserve for all times, areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education and enjoyment of the people.
- Recently Orang Tiger Reserve in Assam and Kamlang Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh were notified 49th and 50th tiger reserves in the country, taking coverage of project tiger to 2.2 per cent of the country’s area.
Project Elephant (PE) was launched by the Government of India in 1991-92.
National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP):
To control degradation and conserve wetlands, the National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) was initiated in 1987 and financial assistance is being provided to the state governments for implementing action plans for conservation and management of identified wetland.
National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC):
- National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) is a central sector scheme under implementation in the 12th Five Year Plan with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) as National Implementing Entity (NIE).
- The overall aim of the fund is to support concrete adaptation activities which are not covered under on-going activities through the schemes of state and central government, that reduce the adverse impact of climate change facing communities, sectors and states.
Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education:
- Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) isan apex body in the national forestry research system, has been undertaking the holistic development of forestry research, education and extension covering all aspects of forestry.
- Headquarters of Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education is located at Dehradun.
- It deals with solution based forestry research in tune with the emerging issues in the sector, including global concerns such as climate change, conservation of biological diversity, combating desertification and sustainable management and development of resources.
Plastic Waste Management Rules, 2016
The Rules provide for:
- Increase in minimum thickness of plastic carry bags from 40 to 50 microns,
- first-time cover and stipulate minimum thickness of 50 microns for plastic sheets being used for packaging and wrapping commodities to facilitate collection and recycle of plastic waste,
- Revamped pricing mechanisms for plastic carry bags by introducing plastic waste management fee to be paid by retailers/street vendors willing to provide carry bags as pre-registration charge.
- Ways and means to promote gainful utilization of plastic waste such as energy recovery, in road construction, etc.
- Introducing user charge and spot fines by the local authority.
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